Non-Antibiotic Antibacterial Agents: Mode of Action and Resistance

It is convenient to consider the modes of action based on biocides target the bacterial cell and in the following pages we will give various examples; The targets to consider are the cell wall, the cytoplasmic membrane and cytoplasm.
 
The scope and complexity of the reactions involved will emerge from this story, and it is interesting to note here that many of these substances have dual or even multiple roles, depending on the concentration.
 
The antimicrobial activity is often strongly influenced by the biocide affinity for the structural or molecular components of the cell, which can, in turn, depend on the attraction of dissimilar charges or hydrophobic interactions. Whose antimicrobial active species is positively charged, p. Ex. The quaternary ammonium compounds and chlorhexidine, have an affinity for the negative charges of the sugar residues on the surface of the microbial cell or phosphate groups on the membrane or membranes; The adsorption of these biocides, and thus their antimicrobial activity, increases as the pH increases and the cell area becomes more electronegative. Antimicrobial chemicals having a long alkyl chain, on the other hand, can be incorporated into the hydrophobic region of the phospholipid molecules within the membrane and cause membrane disruption and fatal permeability changes. Other examples of structure-activity relationships are given by the aldehydes, in particular glutaraldehyde, which is an electrophile capable of reacting with molecules having thiol (SH) groups or amino, p. Ex. Protein.

  • Action on membrane potentials
  • Relative microbial responses to biocides
  • Highly reactive compounds: multitarget reactors
  • Permeabilization
  • Action on general membrane permeability
  • Enzymes with thiol groups
  • Adenosine triphosphatase
  • Electron transport chain
  • Action on membrane enzymes
  • Bacterial resistance to biocides: general mechanisms
  • Intrinsic bacterial resistance
  • Gram-positive cocci
  • Gram-negative bacteria
  • Efflux of biocides
  • Pseudomonads
  • Mycobacteria
  • Bacterial spores
  • Spore development (sporulation) and resistance
  • Mature spores and resistance
  • Germination, outgrowth and susceptibility
  • Physiological (phenotypic) adaptation to intrinsic resistance
  • Acquired bacterial resistance to biocides
  • Resistance acquired by mutation
  • Plasmid-encoded resistance
  • Resistance to cations and anions
  • Resistance to other biocides
  • Sensitivity and resistance of fungi
  • Mechanisms of fungal resistance
  • Sensitivity and resistance of protozoa
  • Activity of biocides against prions
  • Pharmaceutical and medical relevance

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